Bacteria virtual lab answer key

The metabolic and structural natures of all organisms are determined by the genetic information within the DNA molecule s of the cell. The complete genetic information of an organism, or genome, is divided into segments, called genes. A gene is a linear sequence of nucleotides that forms a functional unit of the chromosome or plasmid. Many genes code for the synthesis of RNA and proteins, thereby determining the sequences of ribonucleotide bases and amino acids, respectively.

The faithful replication of DNA ensures passage of the proper hereditary information from parent cell to daughter cells. However, genomes of organisms are subject to change by a variety of mechanisms. In bacteria, heritable changes in the DNA sequence can result from recombination events facilitated by transformation, conjugation and transductionand by mutations.

Mutation is defined as a permanent, heritable change in the genetic material. Mutations usually change the sequence of nucleotides in DNA, which ultimately leads to changes in RNA and protein macromolecules. Spontaneous mutations occur randomly at a very low rate due to infrequent errors made by DNA polymerase during DNA replication.

In most bacterial populations the mutations occur at a rate of approximately one per 10 million to 10 billion organisms. Therefore, a bacterial culture grown to a high titer will always contain a few mutants. Some mutations may result in loss of the ability to degrade sugars ex. Mutant bacteria usually do not grow as well as the wild-type bacteria because most changes are harmful, or at least not helpful.

If, however, conditions change in the environment and favor a mutant cell, it will be able to out-compete and outgrow the cells that do not have the advantageous mutation. In this exercise, we will select for the growth of bacteria that are resistant to the antibiotic streptomycin.

As was discussed earlier, antibiotics kill or inhibit bacteria by interfering with essential processes such as protein synthesis, cell wall synthesis, and DNA replication.

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Streptomycin kills bacteria by binding to the bacterial 70S ribosome to prevent protein synthesis. Note: It does not stop protein synthesis in eucaryotic cells because it doesn't bind to eucaryotic 80S ribosomes. Escherichia coli that are sensitive to streptomycin can become resistant with just one mutation. This mutation alters the ribosome so that streptomycin can no longer bind to it, however the mutation does not alter the normal function of the ribosome.

In the presence of streptomycin, bacteria that have this mutation will most likely survive and grow, whereas those without the mutation will die. After a few generations, most survivors will be resistant to the streptomycin. It is important to note that antibiotics do not induce mutationsbut they can create environments that favor the survival of mutant resistant organisms. Throughout this experiment it is important to keep in mind that the events we demonstrate in vitro "in glass" or in a test tube may also occur in a patient taking antibiotics.Virtual Microbiology Classroom.

Other Great Microbiology Stuff! Todar's Online Textbook of Microbiology. Still University. Microbe WikiKenyon College. Microbe WorldAmerican Society of Microbiology. Cindy Grove Arvidson, Ph. Photographic guides to differential stains. Gram Stain.

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Acid-fast Stain. Endopsore Stain. What might happen if a deadly new infectious disease hit the scene? The film "Contagion" provides an excellent opportunity to learn about infectious disease, how it spreads and which organizations would be involved in tracking and controlling a dangerous outbreak.

The laboratory PowerPoints contain many helpful photos of materials viewed in lab. New resources are regularly added to the Virtual Microbiology Classroom. Each title below is a link to all of the lecture-related course materials on that particular subject. The Virtual Microbiology Classroom is organized by lecture into several topics. Each lecture topic typically includes free:.

PowerPoint lecture. Basic microscopy and viewing bacterial simple stain. First lab in the series on identifying unknown bacteria. Students learn how to create a bacterial smear and preform the Gram stain, with controls and an unknown.

Isolation streak plate technique also introduced. Second lab in a series on identifying unknown bacteria. Students are introduced to the Acid-fast and Endospore stains. Fresh Air audio interview of Dr. Bacteria Classification Spreadsheet. Visit the. Bacterial Pathogen Pronunciation Station! Congrats you bunch of brainiacs! Our current. Smarty-Pants Science Reading Pick:. The Ghost Map. Steven Johnson. Top US States:. More Microbiology Lecture Resources.

Sample Applied Microbiology Syllabus. Sample Applied Microbiology Class Schedule.Exercise 1. Brightfield Microscopy. Short Answer Questions. One hand should be under the base of the microscope to support its weight and one hand should be.

The limit of resolution of the unaided human eye is 0. For the typical light microscope, the limit is 0. The condenser height and diaphragm can be adjusted. Illumination of the specimen is.

Unlike the voltage control, condenser adjustments will increase illumination without affecting the bulb life. The maximum resolution with the oil immersion lens is achieved by using a layer of oil, using a blue filter over the light source, raising the condenser to its highest point, and opening the condenser diaphragm. The oil immersion lens has the smallest working distance and one runs the risk of striking the slide.

Starting with the low power lens, which has a larger working distance, and progressing up to the oil immersion lens is advised. Oil is used with the oil immersion lens because the small working distance does not allow enough light to enter the lens. The oil, which has the same refractive index as glass, directs more light into the lens. As the power of the objective lens increases, the working distance decreases. Matching Questions. Oil immersion.

Low power.

ID Laboratory Videos: Antibiotic susceptibility testing

True-False Questions. Multiple Choice Questions. Exercise 2. Darkfield Microscopy. Darkfield microscopy is preferred for live unstained specimens or thin cells like spirochetes that. Reflection of oblique rays off of objects passes through the lens system.

A cardioid condenser allows more light to pass through the lens system and allows use of more powerful objectives. A simple star diaphragm can be made cutting various sizes of round disks of opaque paper and cementing them to transparent celluloid disks that fit in the slot.

bacteria virtual lab answer key

Exercise 3. Phase-Contrast Microscopy. Staining kills live cells and does not allow observation of movement. Direct rays are produced when light passes straight through a transparent medium without changing amplitude or phase.

Coincidence results when direct and diffracted waves are brought into phase with one another, where the amplitude is the sum of the two waves, and creates a brighter image.

Interference occurs when two waves of equal amplitude are in reverse phase and cancel each other to produce a.Provide details on what you need help with along with a budget and time limit.

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bacteria virtual lab answer key

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Answer the following questions in the spaces provided. What is the overall purpose of this virtual lab? The lab assists in familiarizing an individual with science as well as techniques used in identifying various bacterial organisms based on the DNA sequence. What are the four basic steps involved in this bacterial identification lab? What is "16S rDNA," and how is it used to identify species of bacteria?

Click the window on the left-hand side of the screen to enter the lab. As you enter the lab, follow the instructions in the lab left-hand window.

bacteria virtual lab answer key

Using the information in the Notebook window on the right, answer the following questions. As the pathology lab technician, what is your task in this virtual lab? Identifying the bacterial sample obtained from the clinician 5. Extracting DNA involves which initial step?

Dissolving cell wall with digestive enzymes 6. What is the wire ring used for? To extract the bacteria from colony safely 7. Why are the proteolytic enzymes necessary? To dissolve the cell wall www. Why do you then need to inactivate the proteolytic enzymes and how do you do it?

Because the enzymes will be used in the next stage. After removing the enzymes, why do you spin the sample in the centrifuge? So as to get the parts to split and to get pellet from the bottom What is the pellet?

Pellet is a solid deposit usually found at the bottom b. What is the supernatant? Supernatant is floating on the surface of a clear fluid.

Where is the DNA? Polymerase chain reaction and it amplifies the DNA segments Summarize the process of PCR in a diagram. Include all the steps, labeled and in the right order.

If you are completing this handout online, draw the diagram on a piece of paper, take a photo, save the image as a PDF, and upload it in the space below. What does the Master Mix contain?

Water butter DNA nucleotides Bacteria virtual lab answer key keyword after analyzing the system lists the list of keywords related and the list of websites with related content, in addition you can see which keywords most interested customers on the this website. Search Domain. Search Email. Glencoe bacteria virtual lab answer key. Bacteria virtual lab answer key. We found at least 10 Websites Listing below when search with bacteria virtual lab answer key on Search Engine.

Be sure to watch the virtual lab animation before proceeding to Part 6. These methods are applicable in a wide variety of settings, including scientific research and forensic labs. Answer the following questions in the spaces provided.

What is the overall purpose of this virtual lab? After taking samples from the chicken farm, you will work in the virtual laboratory to isolate single colonies of the deadly bacteria among a variety of different species.

Not all bacteria need oxygen to grow. Table 2: Observations of bacterial Growth in Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions Record your observations for each bacteria type in aerobic with oxygen and Each module demonstrates a different laboratory test, and the student is able to carry out and interpret the results of each Keyword Suggestions. Bacteria virtual lab answer key Home Bacteria virtual lab answer key. Bacteria virtual lab answer key keyword after analyzing the system lists the list of keywords related and the list of websites with related content, in addition you can see which keywords most interested customers on the this website Search Domain.

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Maybank address malaysia Subscribe to our newsletter Subscribe to our newsletter button What is ccp test Continuum healthcare llc Numeros fuerte para hoy Identification of Unknown Bacteria. Laboratory Exercise. How to Use a Compound Light Microscope.

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How to Prepare a Microscope Slide of Bacteria. How to Use a Microincinerator in a Microbiology Laboratory. Streak Plate Technique for Isolating Bacteria. How to Do a Gram Stain. How to Do an Acid-fast. Ziehl-Neelsen Stain. How to Do an Endospore Stain. Test your skill to see if you can do a virtual streak plate procedure that produces isolated colonies. Acid-fast Stain Animated Tutorial : Very educational video of the staining procedure.

Normal Flora Webpageby Douglas F. Interactive page where you can select an area of the body and learn which normal flora typically colonize that location. The images linked here directly relate to the lab exercise and are designed to help you review and study that lab material while outside of lab. Bacterial Growth Medium. In this lab, students are exposed to several means of identifying bacteria, including Gram, Acid-fast and Endospore differential stains, as well as specialized media, streak plating, dichotomous keys and the APIE test strip.

Lab 3a: Prepare Bacterial Smears for Staining. Select Print, and, when the Print screen comes up, go to the Print Handling options. That uses up less paper, placing two slides on each page. This laboratory topic has four associated Word documents. Additional Lab Documents:.

Virtual Microbiology.This interactive, modular lab explores the techniques used to identify different types of bacteria based on their DNA sequences. In this lab, students prepare and analyze a virtual bacterial DNA sample. These methods are applicable in a wide variety of settings, including scientific research and forensic labs. The lab contains an interactive lab space and an informational notebook with detailed procedures.

It also includes supplementary resources, such as a glossary of scientific terms, images of equipment and tools, and an encyclopedia of bacteria. The accompanying worksheet provides structure and guidance as students perform the procedures in the lab. Not all downloadable documents for the resource may be available in this format.

Skip to main content. Share This. Description This interactive, modular lab explores the techniques used to identify different types of bacteria based on their DNA sequences.

Describe the steps for isolating, copying, and sequencing a DNA sample. Details Estimated Time. One to several minute class periods, depending on which sections are used. Educator Tips Hear how educators are using BioInteractive content in their teaching. Previous Slide Next Slide. Explore Related Content. Other Related Resources Showing of. Human Genome Sequencing. Sanger Sequencing.

Shotgun Sequencing. DNA Sequence Assembly. Virochip DNA Microarray. DNA Cloning with Plasmids. DNA Profiling Activity.

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